Fosfuri A: Determinants of international activities: data from the chemical industry. 2004 Lu ZJ, Comanor WS: Strategic pricing of new drugs. Rev Econ Stat. 1998, 80 (1): 108-118. 10.1162/003465398557212 Watal J: Pharmaceutical patents, prices and welfare losses: Policy options for India under the WTO TRIPS Agreement. The global economy. 2000, 23 (5): 733-10.1111/1467-9701.00299. The databases searched covered both health and economic literature: Pubmed, Embase, Global Health, International Bibiography of Social Sciences (IBSS), ABI/INFORM and Econlit. The selected Thai databases were the Health System Research Institute database, the Journal of Health Science, the Thai thesis database, the Thailand Research Fund, the Thai Journal Citation Index Center and the National Research Council of Thailand Research Library. Given the specific environment of the case studies in Thailand, the Thai literature review also included unpublished (grey) publications such as research reports, master`s theses or doctoral theses.
Data from published studies (1980-2009) were compiled in such a way as to ensure the integration of all work carried out where the requirement for comprehensive standard patent protection was necessary, given that intellectual property has become an important commercial instrument since the 1980s and that new international trade rules on intellectual property rights have been seen as a means of responding to economic tensions. International. . The experience of Canada and Italy reflects the situation in Thailand. A study on the effects of Canada`s 1987 patent law, which increased the term of protection from seven to ten years while allowing the generic drug industry to introduce compulsory licensing, showed that drug prices increased after 1987 compared to pre-1987 prices . Similarly, after the entry into force of a patent law in Italy in 1978, the prices of new medicines increased by 163% compared to the prices of new medicines before 1978 . Maskus KE, Penubarti M: To what extent are intellectual property rights trade-related? J Int Econ. 1995, 39 (3-4): 227-248. Pradhan JP: Strengthening Intellectual Property Rights worldwide: Impact on Indian pharmaceutical exports. Singap Econ Rev.
2007, 52 (2): 233-250. 10.1142/S0217590807002671. The empirical literature provides answers to some important questions related to the impact of patents, although the evidence is largely inconsistent. With regard to the impact of patents on price, Thai and international evidence confirms that patenting raises prices and affects the price of the new registration of medicines. With regard to current access, international empirical evidence shows that patent protection does not always impede access, while a Thai study suggested that the implementation of a limited patent term could indeed improve access. With regard to future access, there is evidence that strengthening patent policy in a given country can accelerate the time to enter the pharmaceutical market. . . .